Once Greece finally achieved its independence from the Ottomans, it would still take four major wars to bring the modern Greek nation into being: the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the First Balkan War from 1912 to 1913, WWI from 1914-1918, and the final Greco-Turkish War from 1919-1922. Once the dust settled, both countries agreed to clear each others’ ethnicities from their respective lands in 1923.
In reality, the mutual trade was more about religion than ethnicity. During Ottoman rule, many Orthodox Christians were living in Turkey, while a lesser number of Muslims lived in Greece. The trade essentially moved these people accordingly: Orthodox Christians to Greece and Muslims to Turkey. It mattered not that there were many native Greek Muslims and native Turks who were also Orthodox Christians. (more…)